Actinomycosis - Symptoms & Treatment
Actinomycosis is a subacute-to-chronic bacterial infection caused by filamentous. Alcohol abuse is associated with actinomycosis. It is characterized by contiguous spread, suppurative and granulomatous inflammation, and formation of multiple abscesses and sinus tracts that may discharge sulfur granules. The most common clinical forms of actinomycosis are cervicofacial thoracic, and abdominal. In women, pelvic actinomycosis is possible. Actinomycosis is caused by a bacterium called Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). It occurs normally in the mouth and tonsils. This bacterium may cause infection when it is introduced into the soft tissues by trauma. Actinomyces israelii species is a gram-positive, cast-forming, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacillus that is difficult to isolate and identify. Its filamentous growth and mycelialike colonies have a striking resemblance to fungi. Actinomycosis generally is a polymicrobial infection, with isolates numbering as many as 5-10 bacterial species.
Actinomycosis is characterized by a mixed suppurative and the presence of sulfur granules. Establishment of human infection may require the presence of such companion bacteria, which participate in the production of infection by elaborating a toxin or enzyme or by inhibiting host defenses.Pelvic actinomycosis affects the women's pelvic area and may cause lower abdominal pain, fever, and bleeding between menstrual periods. This form of the infection has been associated with the use of IUDs (intra-uterine devices) that do not contain copper. Actinomycosis may be hard to diagnose at onset. There are lab tests that may isolate actinomyces in pus or tissue specimens. Treatment for actinomycosis is long term, generally with up to one month of intravenous penicillin G, followed by weeks to months of penicillin taken by mouth.
Causes of Actinomycosis
Common causes of Actinomycosis
- Filamentous Bacteria(Actinomyces israelii)
- Actinomyces species.
Symptoms of Actinomycosis
Common Symptoms of Actinomycosis
- Swelling or hard.
- Weight loss.
- Pain is minimal to absent.
- Draining sores in the skin.
Treatment of Actinomycosis
Common Treatment of Actinomycosis
- The treatment of keratoactinomycosis used to be excision of necrotic tissue, followed by cauterization. However, good results have been obtained by subconjunctival penicillin coadministered with systemic iodides. Alternatively, topical sulfacetamide or penicillin can be used.
- Actinomycetes are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins. Postoperatively, patients may be treated with topical cefazolin for 1 month.
- Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy for actinomycotic lacrimal canaliculitis has been reported.
- Surgical therapy may include incision and drainage of abscesses, excision of sinus tracts and recalcitrant fibrotic lesions, decompression of closed-space infections, and interventions aimed at relieving obstruction (eg, when actinomycotic lesions compress the ureter).